咨询热线:4006-30-30-30
首页>托福TOEFL>正文
三分钟教你破解托福阅读句子插入题

 

句子插入题是托福阅读考试必考的一道题,题目通常出现在每篇阅读文章的倒数第二题。句子插入题是让同学将给定的一句话放在正确的原文中四个黑色方框中的某一个,使得句意连贯完整。题型如下:

The raising of livestock is a major economic activity in semiarid lands, where grasses are generally the dominant type of natural vegetation. The consequences of an excessive number of livestock grazing in an area are the reduction of the vegetation cover and the trampling and pulverization of the soil. This is usually followed by the drying of the soil and accelerated erosion.Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

This economic reliance on livestock in certain regions makes large tracts of land susceptible to overgrazing.

Where would the sentence best fit?


句子插入题与推断题,修辞目的题一样,考查学生一定的逻辑和推理能力,由于很多同学不擅长推理,又缺乏正确的解题方法,导致做该题的正确率不高。今天教大家用指代关系逻辑关系破解句子插入题。


        句子简化题做题步骤是:

     1.分析给定的句子;

     2.找出线索词;

     3.了解句意,做出合理推测;

     4.放入选项看前后句意是否通顺。


 

 一、指代关系:

首先文章中使用代词是为了避免句子的累赘和重复。如果给定句子中出现了代词,那么题目就迎刃而解了。其次,托福文章常见代词有以下几种:

     人称代词:he, she, they, them, ......

     指示代词:this+名词,that+名词,these+名词......

     关系代词:who, whose, whom......


例题1

The raising of livestock is a major economic activity in semiarid lands, where grasses are generally the dominant type of natural vegetation. The consequences of an excessive number of livestock grazing in an area are the reduction of the vegetation cover and the trampling and pulverization of the soil. This is usually followed by the drying of the soil and accelerated erosion.

Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

This economic reliance on livestock in certain regions makes large tracts of land susceptible to overgrazing.

Where would the sentence best fit?


分析:给定的句子中出现了this+ 名词(economic reliance on livestock)的指代关系,我们就能轻松推断出该句子前面一定会出现跟livestock有关的经济现象。很显然答案放在第二个黑色方框中合理准确。


例题2

Continued sedimentationthe process of deposits settling on the sea bottomburies the organic matter and subjects it to higher temperatures and pressures, which convert the organic matter to oil and gas. As muddy sediments are pressed together, the gas and small droplets of oil may be squeezed out of the mud and may move into sandy layers nearby. Over long periods of time (millions of years), accumulations of gas and oil can collect in the sandy layers. Both oil and gas are less dense than water, so they generally tend to rise upward through water-saturated rock and sediment.

Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Unless something acts to halt this migration, these natural resources will eventually reach the surface.

Where would the sentence best fit?


分析:给定的句子中出现了this+名词(migration)和these + 名词 (natural resources)两处指代关系,可以推测出给定句子前面一定会提到跟migration(移动)和natural resources有关的信息。若先看natural resources,第二、三、四空前面句子都有提到,但是看到this migration时,只有第四个黑色方框前面提到了和移动方向有关的词“rise upward”。代入第四空后,检测一下前后句意是否通顺。前句提到因为油和气体的密度要小于水,所以这些油和气体会通过含有水的岩石和沉积物向上移动,除非有行为组织这种迁移,不然这些自然资源最终会达到表层。句子完整通顺,正确答案选第四个空。

 

 

二、逻辑关系:

做题前,同样需要通过给定句子中的过渡词或者说连接词分析清楚给定句子和其前后句子间的逻辑关系。以下是托福阅读文章常见的逻辑关系以及相对应的过渡词:

1. 并列关系:and, also, as well as, in addition.....

2. 转折关系:however, on the contrary, although......

3. 因果关系:becausesincethus, thereforeconsequently......

4. 强调关系:indeed, in fact......

如果给定的句子中出现这些逻辑关系,就可以进行合理的推测了。比如给定句子中说“小明参加了舞会”,那么前面的句子中一定会出现某某人也参加了舞会。


例题3 

One interpretation regarding the absence of fossils during this important 100-million-year period is that early animals were soft bodied and simply did not fossilize. Fossilization of soft-bodied animals is less likely than fossilization of hard-bodied animals, but it does occur. Conditions that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals include very rapid covering by sediments that create an environment that discourages decomposition. In fact, fossil beds containing soft-bodied animals have been known for many years.

Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

It is relatively rare because the fossilization of soft-bodied animals requires a special environment.

Where could the sentence best fit?


分析:给定句子中有多处线索,有it, because, 等。句子表达的意思是“这种情况相当罕见因为软体动物的石化需要特殊的环境”。此处有个明显的因果联系。合理推测给定句子前面会提到软体动物,并且涉及到软体动物石化出现的会比较少。因此答案放在第二个空里。放入后并能发现其实后面句子给出了这种特殊环境的conditions,所以前后句子完整通顺,放在第二空。

此处较难的逻辑关系是强调关系,很多同学不太明白强调的作用。举例说明,如果给定的句子中说“小明的确很聪明”,那么前面的句子可能涉及的话题也是跟小明聪明相关。比如A老师说“小明脑袋瓜灵活”,那么B老师会进一步强调说“小明的确很聪明”。


例题4

Paragraph 1: The city of Teotihuacán, which lay about 50 kilometers northeast of modern-day Mexico City, began its growth by 200-100 B.C. At its height, between about A.D. 150 and 700, it probably had a population of more than 125,000 people and covered at least 20 square kilometers. It had over 2,000 apartment complexes, a great market, a large number of industrial workshops, an administrative center, a number of massive religious edifices, and a regular grid pattern of streets and buildings. Clearly, much planning and central control were involved in the expansion and ordering of this great metropolis.  Moreover, the city had economic and perhaps religious contacts with most parts of Mesoamerica (modern Central America and Mexico).

Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

In fact, artifacts and pottery from Teotihuacán have been discovered in sites as far away as the Mayan lowlands, the Guatemalan highlands, northern Mexico, and the Gulf Coast of Mexico.

Where would the sentence best fit?


分析:此题难度较大,乍一看给定句子,然后再看文章段落似乎找不到正确答案。我们仔细看一下,给定句子中出现了in fact,那么给定句子就是强调句,所以给定句子的前面一定会提到跟给定句子内容相关的信息。给定句子的意思是“来自Teotihuacán的手工艺品和陶瓷在远达…这四个地方被发现了”。那么前文一定会提到交流和沟通类似的句子。你会发现第四个空前面出现“the city”和“Mesoamerica”有经济和宗教的联系,能够确定答案放在第四个空。


句子插入题主要就是弄懂给定句子,在给定句子中找出逻辑关系和相应线索。相信同学们通过以上两种方法多加练习必定能将做题正确率大大提高。


快分享给朋友吧!